Syntax Keywords

Syntax Keywords provide a list of commonly used search syntax. Users can click directly on the syntax that they want to use, followed by their search query. To access this syntax box, simply type any known USPTO search syntax or a / in the search box and it will automatically appear. Click on the Syntax List to see the full list.

Please refer to the respective articles on Quick Search and Advanced Search to learn more about how to use syntax codes in each search type. 

 

Syntax Operator

Example

Explanation

*

SPEC/app*

The * syntax operator is used as a multi-character variable.

In the following example, SPEC/app* will search for any word that begins with "app-," no matter how long the word is.

?

SPEC/app?

The ? Syntax operator is used as a single character variable.

In the following example, SPEC/app? will search for any word that begins with "app-" and will include only words with one additional character.

""

SPEC/"artificial"

The " " syntax operator will search for the exact words/characters enclosed by the quotation marks.

In the following example, SPEC/"artificial" will search for the exact word "artificial."

Note: When using NEAR, do not use quotation marks (“ “) in your query.

()

SPEC/(art OR paint) AND canvas

The ( ) syntax operator denotes the order of precedence when performing a search. Operations within the parentheses will be operated on first.

AND

SPEC/(art AND paint)

The AND syntax operator will search for both keywords on either side of the AND syntax operator. Results will be shown only if the results contain both keywords.

OR

SPEC/(art OR paint)

The OR syntax operator will search for both keywords on either side of the OR syntax operator. Results will be shown only if the results contain only one keyword, or the other keyword, or both keywords.

NOT

SPEC/(art AND NOT paint)

The NOT syntax operator will not search for the keyword after the NOT syntax operator.

In the following example, SPEC/(art AND NOT paint) will search for the word "art" in the description, but it will ignore any results which include both the keyword "art" and the keyword "paint" in the description.

WITH

 

 

AAN/(GOOGLE) WITH AAR/(EYEFLUENCE)

The WITH operator will search for data fields in a single transaction record.

For example, the search for GOOGLE as assignee WITH EYEFLUENCE as the assignor will result in the patents that were directly transferred to GOOGLE from EYEFLUENCE.

Take US8885877B2 as an example:

Q1: AAN/(google) AND AAR/(EYE-COM) AND pn/US8885877B2 → 1 result: wrong result for non-direct transfer

Q2: AAN/(google) WITH AAR/(EYE-COM) AND pn/US8885877B2 → 0 result: correct result for non-direct transfer

Q3: AAN/(google) WITH AAR/(EYEFLUENCE) AND pn/US8885877B2 → 1 result: correct result for direct transfer

The WITH syntax operator is used between assignment data fields (in a pair): Assignment assignee & assignor (AAN, AAR), Licensee & Licensor (LNE, LNO), Pledgee & Pledgor (PGE, PGO).

Note: Do not embrace the query with additional parenthesis, or the WITH syntax operator will not work well, such as (AAN/(GOOGLE)) WITH

AAR/(EYEFLUENCE)→ is the wrong result because a pair of parenthesis “()” separates AAN/ from WITH.

AAN/(GOOGLE) WITH DUR/2017*

AAN/(GOOGLE) WITH AAR/(EYEFLUENCE) WITH DUR/2017*

The DUR syntax keyword will search for transaction records that occurred during a specific time period.

Query Example:
Q4: AAN/(google) AND TRD/2013* AND pn/US8885877B2 → 1 result: wrong result because the transaction record of google as assignee in this patent is not in 2013 but in 2017
Q5: AAN/(google) WITH DUR/2013* AND pn/US8885877B2 → 0 result: correct result
Q6: AAN/(google) WITH DUR/2017* AND pn/US8885877B2 → 1 result: correct result

“ ” (Space)

FCLH/(G06F9 G06F3)

In Syntax Keyword search or Quick Search, space equals to “AND”. You can use space to separate two keywords. In Advanced Search, space will be converted to “OR” or “AND”, depending on your selection.

 

Keywords

Data Field

Syntax

Example

Notes

Title

TTL

TTL/Antibacteri*
TTL/"Carbon nanotubes"

You can build a query using the original language of the application or English.
*The search results may be different due to a delay in the English translation.

Description

SPEC

SPEC/Antibacteri*

 

Claims

ACLM

ACLM/emitting

 

Independent Claims

ICLM

ICLM/emitting

 

# of Claim

NCLM

NCLM/[2->5]

NCLM/[2->*]

NCLM/[*->5]

NCLM/2

 

# of Independent Claim

NICLM

NICLM/[2->5]

NICLM/[2->*]

NICLM/[*->5]

NICLM/2

 

Abstract

ABST

ABST/"Carbon nanotubes"

You can build a query using the original language of the application or English.
*The search results may be different due to a delay in the English translation.

Full-Text

FULL

FULL/"bowling ball"

This is the default field. You may enter a query without any syntax.

Title, Abstract, and Claim

 

TAC

 

TAC/(computer notebook)

This will simultaneously search for the patents with the keywords found together in either the title, or the abstract, or the claim sections.

e.g. TAC/(computer notebook) = TTL/(computer AND notebook) OR ABST/(computer AND notebook) OR ACLM/(computer AND notebook)

TAC/computer AND TAC/notebook

This will simultaneously search for the patents with the keywords that must be found in either the title, or the abstract or the claim sections.

e.g. (TTL/computer or ABST/computer or ACLM/computer) AND (TTL/notebook or ABST/notebook or ACLM/notebook)

Abstract and Claim

 

AC

 

AC/(computer notebook)

This will simultaneously search for the patents with the keywords found together in the abstract or the claim sections.

e.g. AC/(computer notebook) = ABST/(computer AND notebook) OR ACLM/(computer AND notebook)

AC/computer AND AC/notebook

This will simultaneously search for the patents with the keywords that must be found in either the abstract or the claim sections.

e.g. AC/computer AND AC/notebook = (ABST/computer or ACLM/computer) AND (ABST/notebook or ACLM/notebook)

Near

NEAR(?)

TAC/((computer notebook tablet phone) NEAR3 (wireless communication transmission))

1. The "?" denotes the range of words within which to search for the keyword pairs. Range is unlimited.

2. The maximum number of keyword pairs to search for is 300.

3. The NEAR operator must be used together with a syntax keyword, as seen in the example.

4. Using two or more consecutive NEAR operators is NOT allowed. For example: TTL/((REFERENCE SIGNAL) NEAR1 device NEAR1 execution) is not allowed.

5. Only up to three NEAR operators (non-consecutive) can be used in a query. For example: TTL/((REFERENCE SIGNAL) NEAR1 device) AND TTL/(device NEAR1 transmitting) AND TTL/(device NEAR1 receiving) is allowed due to a total of three NEAR operators used in three different syntaxes. 

6. While using near operator in search query, quotation("") and asterisk(*) are not supported.

Note: When using NEAR, do not use quotation marks (“ “) in your query.

 

                  

Dates

Data Field

Syntax

Example

Notes

Appl. Date

APD

APD/[20081101 -> 20081130]

 

Pub. Date

PD

PD/200311*

 

Issue Date

ISD

ISD/[20081101 -> *]

 

Pub. Date (Gazette)

PDG

PDG/[20170102->20180102]

 

Earliest Priority

EPRD

EPRD/2017*

 

Earliest Appl.

EAPD

EAPD/2017*

This is used for calculation of the (est.) expiration date. This is also known as the Earliest Effective Filing Date of the application for purposes of a patent term.

Issue/Pub. Date

PID

PID/2017*

Publication or Issue Date

Party

Data Field

Syntax

Example

Notes

Inventor 

IN

IN/"CHEN Yun Lung"

This field can be used to search for both the original and the standardized name.

Inventor Address

INAD

INAD/Shenzhen

 

Inventor Country

ICN

ICN/(CN or US or TW)

 

Assignee / Applicant

AN

AN/"Tesla Motors"

This field can be used to search for both the original and the standardized name.

Curr. Assignee

CAN

CAN/"Tesla Motors"

This field can be used to search for the current assignee.

Assignee Address

ANAD

ANAD/Taipei

 

Agent

LREP

LREP/Weingram

 

Examiner

EXP

EXP/John*

Only available for US and JP patents.

All Parties

PARTY

PARTY/Microsoft

Includes assignee, agent, inventor, etc.

Number

Data Field

Syntax

Example

Notes

Appl. No.

APN

APN/"11/616909"

 

Pat. No.

PN

PN/US774947*
PN/CN102625944A

This field can be used to search for published patent applications and granted patents. The number includes Pub. No.and Issue No.

Patent Office

CC

CC/US

The Country Code is a two-letter code used to indicate the country or organization of the application. See the country code list.

Kind Code

KD

KD/B

 

Classification

Data Field

Syntax

Example

Notes

IPC

ICL

ICL/G06F019/00

 

Main IPC

MICL

MICL/G06F019*

 

Locarno

LOCS

LOCS/07-02

 

Main Locarno

MLOC

MLOC/21-01

 

USPC

CCL

CCL/370/329

 

Main USPC

MCCL

MCCL/70/264

 

CPC

CPC

CPC/H01L033/54

 

Main CPC

MCPC

MCPC/H01L*

 

FI

FCL

FCL/G06F9/00,320A

JPO "File Index" (FI) classification.

Classification (Hierarchy)

Data Field

Syntax

Example

Notes

IPC (Hierarchy)

ICLH

ICLH/(G01N33/487)

When hierarchy syntax is used, the search results will include the patents in a lower classification as well. For example, a syntax parameter of  ICLH/(G01N33/487) will also search for patents in the subgroup of ICLH/(G01N33/49) because G01N33/49 is under the subgroup of G01N33/487.

More specifically, US20160136639A1 has an IPC of G01N33/49 as opposed to G01N33/487, and it should not be included as a result of ICL/(G01N33/487).  However, the subgroup of G01N33/49 is under G01N33/487, so US20160136639A1 will be included in the results of  ICLH/(G01N33/487).

Note: An asterisk “*” is not necessary when the hierarchy syntax is defined.

Main IPC (Hierarchy)

MICLH

MICLH/G06F019

USPC (Hierarchy)

CCLH

CCLH/370/329

Main USPC (Hierarchy)

MCCLH

MCCLH/70/264

CPC (Hierarchy)

CPCH

CPCH/H01L033/54

Main CPC (Hierarchy)

MCPCH

MCPCH/H01L

FI (Hierarchy)

FCLH

FCLH/G06F9/00,320A

Assignment Data

Data Field

Syntax

Example

Notes

Reassignment

AOAI

AOAI/Y

Denote if Transfer/Licensing/Pledge happened, ignoring the transfer with the inventor as the assignor.

# of RSGMT

ANT

ANT/3

Search for Not Less Than the number input. E.g. ANT/3 Search for patents with the number of Assignments not less than 3.

Assignor (RSGMT)

AAR

AAR/"APPLE, INC."

 

Assignee (RSGMT)

AAN

AAN/"APPLE, INC."

 

Transfer Date

TRD

TRD/2015*

The date of the assignment.

Agent (RSGMT)

CNA

CNA/"Fish & Richardson"

 

Licensing

PLN

PLN/Y

 

Licensor

LNO

LNO/"APPLE, INC."

 

Licensee

LNE

LNE/"APPLE, INC."

 

Licensing Date

LND

LND/2015*

 

Pledge

PPG

PPG/N

 

Pledgor

PGO

PGO/"APPLE, INC."

 

Pledgee

PGE

PGE/APPLE

 

Pledge Date

PGD

PGD/2015*

 

Date of RSGMT

DUR

DUR/2017*

Transfer/Licensing/Pledge Date. Please refer to “WITH” syntax operator for more usages.

Change of Name

NC

NC/"Apple Inc"

NCB/"GitHub"

NCA/"Microsoft"

Looking the name change before (from), please use NCB.

For name change after (to), please use NCA.

Name Change Date

NCD

NCD/2018*

 

Patent Ranking

Data Field

Syntax

Example

Notes

Patent Quality

QRANK

QRANK/3->*

Our model for Quality takes into consideration (based on publication/issue information before it is published) :
- The qualifications and profile of the attorney.
- The qualifications and profile of the examiner.
- The number of the potential prior art.
- The structure of independent and dependent claims.

Each ranking is based on a score calculated using our model:
(5) AAA : Score is in the top 3%
(4) AA : 3% - 10%
(3) A : 10% - 25%
(2) B : 25% - 50%
(1) C : 50% - 75%
(0) D : Below 75%

E.g.: The value of 3 represents "A.” Therefore, 3->* represents values above "A.”

Patent Value

VRANK

VRANK/3->*

Our model for Value takes into consideration (based on publication/issue information before it is published):
- The qualifications and profile of the inventor.
- The qualifications and profile of the applicant.
- The stage of technology lifecycle citation(s).
- Citation(s).
- Pre-grant assignment and licensing.

Each ranking is based on a score calculated using our model:
(5) AAA : Score is in the top 3%
(4) AA : 3% - 10%
(3) A : 10% - 25%
(2) B : 25% - 50%
(1) C : 50% - 75%
(0) D : Below 75%

E..g.: The value of 3 represents "A.” Therefore, 3->* represents values above "A.”

Status Data

Data Field

Syntax

Example

Notes

Legal Status

LLS

LLS/3

Legal Status is selected from:
(1) Pending: Patents application yet to be granted.
(2) Examination.
(3) Active - Granted.
(4) Abandoned: Patents abandoned, withdrawn, or not paid for by applicant or assignee.
(5) Expired: Patents expired because the patent term is due.
(6) Revoked ab initio: Patents invalidated after grant.
(7) PGPub - Granted: Application that has been issued.
(8) Reissued.
(9) PCT End - NP: The PCT stage ended, and the national phase (NP) was entered.
E.g.: The value of 3 represents "Active - Granted".

(Est.) Exp. Date

ESED

ESED/2025*

The estimated expiration date is based on the patent office, patent type, and application/issue date, and is only available for an active patent.

If the estimated expiration date is before the system updating date (e.g. today), or if any abandon event occurs, the estimated expiration date will no longer be searchable and an inactive date of the patent can be found.

If the patent type is “other”, it will be presumed to be “Utility Patent”. Otherwise certain parameter(s) (e.g. kind code) can help determine the date.

We don’t calculate the estimated exp. the date for SPC (Supplementary protection certificate).

Abandon Date

ABDD

ABDD/2015*

The date of Abandonment, Withdrawal, and Non-payment.

Abandon Type

ABDT

ABDT/1

Abandon Type is selected from:
(1) Abandoned Appl.
(2) Withdrawn
(3) Lasped
(4) No Active State

Designated State

DS

DS/DE

Enter Country Code to search for EP and WO patent designated states.

# of State

DSN

DSN/1

Search for not less than the number input. E.g. DSN/1 search for patents with the number of designated states not less than 1.

Active State

DSA

DSA/DE

Enter Country Code to search for EP and WO patent designated states (active state).

Inactive State

DSI

DSI/DE

Enter Country Code to search for EP and WO patent designated states (inactive state).

Pending State

DSP

DSP/DE

Enter Country Code to search for WO patent designated states (Pending).

National-Phase State

DST

DST/DE

Enter Country Code to search for WO patent designated states (National-Phase).

# of Active State

DSNA

DSNA/1

Search for not less than the numbet input. E.g. DSNA/1 search for patents with the number of active designated states not less than 1.

# of Inactive State

DSNI

DSNI/1

Search for not less than the number input. E.g. DSNI/1 search for patents with the number of inactive designated states not less than 1.

# of Pending State

DSNP

DSNP/1

Search for not less than the number input. E.g. DSNP/1 search for patents with the number of pending designated states not less than 1.

# of National-Phase State

DSNT

DSNT/1

Search for not less than the number input. E.g. DSNT/1 search for patents with the number of national-phase designated states not less than 1.

Others

Data Field

Syntax

Example

Notes

Patent Type

TYPE

TYPE/(1 or 2)

1. Utility Patent.
2. Utility Model.
3. Design.
4. Plant.
5. Other.